The human brain is one of the great unknowns that for centuries has drawn the attention of scientists, who are trying to decipher the cognitive abilities of the human being.
The Woman Post | Bryan Andres Murcia Molina
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Academic records show that neuroscience was one of the areas of medicine that took the longest to investigate. It was not until the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century when it acquired relevance in the world of science.
During the development of its history, great figures have been involved in the study of the brain, among which we can highlight brilliant women scientists, who have been leading research on the functioning of the brain, its diseases, and its stages of development or learning.
The contribution of women scientists has been so important that The Woman Post makes a selection of the 7 most important women scientists in neuroscience:
1. Patricia Goldman-Rakic
This American led the first research on the work of the frontal lobe and memory. Her contribution was so great that many consider that what we know today about memory, behaviors, and brain diseases such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease, is the result of her work.
Dr. Patricia Goldman-Rakic achieved unprecedented insight into the brain’s frontal lobes, mapping the region & shedding light on crucial functions including cognition, planning, & working memory. More: https://t.co/zrAQAGCbtM #WomensHistoryMonth #WomenInScience pic.twitter.com/mRzNJEd5eg— UNC Neurosurgery (@UNCneurosurgery) March 10, 2021
2. Marian Cleeves Diamond
Pioneer of neuroscience and in charge of the study of the brain of Albert Einstein. She studied at the University of California at Berkeley, where she was a professor until 2014. She was also recognized in 2010 for teaching one of the most popular virtual courses in the world through the YouTube platform.
3. May-Britt Moser
She was the winner of the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2014. She studied psychology at the University of Oslo and has a doctorate in neurophysiology. She along with John O'keefe and Edvard Moser discovered cells that establish a positioning system in the brain.
Yes! ????With @EdvardMoser and our students at @KISNeuro we discovered grid cells - and other functional cells in the entorhinal cortex. Both Edvard and I have received invaluable grants from ERC - permitting high risk - high gain basic research moving the field forward. Thanks!???? https://t.co/X3dXPavlhH— May-Britt Moser (@MayBrittMoser) February 14, 2021
4. Brenda Milner
Mother of neuropsychology, she was born in 1918 in Manchester, England. In 1936 she graduated in experimental psychology, and later she obtained her doctorate from the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI). She was in charge of leading the investigation in the famous case of H.M. man, where it was discovered that a patient can learn new skills without being aware of it. Her academic research focused on neuronal injuries and their psychological consequences.
Join us for the upcoming Neuropsychology Day and Brenda Milner Lecture, named in honour of the eminent neuroscientist. Here Milner gives some advice and observations on #neuroscience. https://t.co/1FH2y9W6Av pic.twitter.com/XWxzz5nawH— The Neuro (@TheNeuro_MNI) March 11, 2021
5. Cécile Vogt-Mugnier
If we talk about the contributions that women scientists have made, we cannot leave the pioneering neuroscientist of neuroscience off the list. Cécile Vogt-Mugnier joined the world of science at a time when men were more represented. Together with her husband Oscar Vogt, she led research on the anatomy of the brain. Various sources indicate that they were the first to develop maps of the human brain. The results of her research helped her become the first woman to be nominated for the Nobel Prize in Medicine.
Happy National Women's Day! French physician Cecile Vogt-Mugnier pioneered cerebral cortex research. In 1920, only 6% of physicians were female, and for most of her life, she worked without pay. Today women fill more than 50 percent of medical schools. #Balanceforbetter pic.twitter.com/Q3ka0UjJNI— LifelinesNeuro (@Lifelinesneuro) March 8, 2019
6. Rita Levi-Montalcini
Italian scientist of Jewish descent. She developed some of her work during World War II, during which time she developed the basis for what would become her most famous research: the first known growth factor in the nervous system. Her work earned him the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1986. Her love story for science is one of the best known and most admired of hers because the war and the Nazi persecution did not stop her in her experiments.
Watch the very moment Rita Levi-Montalcini received her Nobel Prize in 1986.— The Nobel Prize (@NobelPrize) March 10, 2021
Levi-Montalcini shared the 1986 Medicine prize with Stanley Cohen "for their discoveries of growth factors." #NobelPrize pic.twitter.com/oImUWgF89m
7. Anita Harding
Neuroscientist at University College London. She was the first to discover a mitochondrial DNA mutation in a human disease. Her contributions to her science are invaluable and she is remembered for combining clinical work with the study of genetics.
Neurologist Anita Harding. My 1st boss. Died @ 42. Changed world by leading the discovery of link tween mitochondrial DNA and disease. Barely remembered. On #InternationalWomensDay let's commit to writing women into our history and to honour legacy fairly! https://t.co/oTut7QfL9T pic.twitter.com/QMUn6Pi0e2— Stephen Cummins #????4????oS (@Stephen_Cummins) March 8, 2021
The contribution of these women continues to be used by the academy and the results of her research are the basis for new projects in this field.